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Full text of "Missouri Deer Population Status Report and Deer Season Summary 2011-2012"

Missouri Deer Population Status Report 

& Deer Season Summary 





>±l 



Prepared by: 

Jason Sumners, Emily Flinn 

& Lonnie Hansen 

Resource Science Division 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 
Table of Contents 

Population Status 2 

Antler Point Restriction and Harvest Rates 3 

Bowhunter Observation Index 6 

Chronic Wasting Disease 7 

CWD in Missouri Update 7 

General Information about the 2011-12 Deer Season 9 

Season Dates: 9 

Bag Limit 9 

Harvest Reporting 9 

Archery Deer Season Summary 10 

Firearms Deer Season Summary 10 

Managed Deer Hunts 10 

Table 1. Deer Season Harvest Summary 12 

Table 2. Summary of Permit Sales and Harvest by Permit Type 12 

Table 3. Deer Permit and Harvest Facts 13 

Table 4. Archery and Firearms Harvest Totals for the 2011-12 Missouri Deer Season 14 

Regional Deer Harvest Trends 19 

Deer Management Information & Assistance 21 

Deer Information Tailored to Hunters & Landowners 21 

Deer Cooperative Assistance 21 

Deer Program Research Projects 22 




Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



Population Status 

One of the goals of deer regulation liberalizations over the last decade has been to decrease deer numbers in many 
parts of Missouri. In addition to liberalization of antlerless harvest, an antler-point restriction (APR) has been 
implemented in many counties in an effort to shift harvest pressure from bucks to does (Figure 1). Increased harvest 
pressure on does should result in fewer does in the population and requiring fewer does to be harvested over time to 
maintain populations at desirable levels. Over the past several years harvest of does has consistently exceeded antlered 
buck harvest. The result is a change in the sex ratio of the populations and a projected need to harvest fewer does over 
time as they make up a smaller portion of the population. 

The 2011 deer harvest of 288,594 was a 5% increase from 2010. Most of the increase in harvest occurred across the 
southern half of Missouri. As populations across north, central, and western Missouri have been reduced, populations 
in the Ozarks and southeast Missouri have been increasing, resulting in relatively stable statewide harvest. 

Efforts over the last decade to stabilize or reduce deer numbers through increased harvest liberalizations and 
implementation of the antler-point restriction (APR) have been successful in reducing overall deer numbers and the 
proportion of does in the population. Doe harvest has declined annually since 2004 in Northwest, Northeast and West- 
Central Missouri. Alternatively, the removal of unlimited availability of firearms antlerless permits from 18 southwest 
Missouri counties and continued conservative regulations across the Ozarks and southeast Missouri have resulted in 
slowly increasing populations. While continued liberal antlerless harvest opportunities in northern Missouri are 
intended to maintain deer numbers at current levels some adjustments to the availability of antlerless permits is 
necessary to reduce harvest pressure on deer populations in some counties. If high doe harvest rates continue in some 
central and western counties there is an increasing risk that populations will continues to decline below acceptable 
levels. 

The reduction in deer numbers across many parts of Missouri is reflected in landowner and hunter responses to attitude 
surveys. Issues of over-abundant deer populations are now relatively isolated situations in which landowners restrict 
hunter access. Overall, rural deer populations appear stable or decreasing in much of Missouri. Alternatively, managing 
deer populations in urban communities continues to be a challenge, although a number of municipalities have changed 
ordinances over the last decade to allow the discharge of archery equipment. Increased hunter access to urban 
properties has increased deer harvest in some urban areas; however, deer populations in many cities continue to 
increase. 



1600000 



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1200000 



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200000 



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120000 



100000 



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•Antlered Bucks 




oP. or. or. oft oV. <*V csV b?> o7>. c^^^_c^_c^_c^_<^_c^_c^.<^.c^_cC^<v' 
Year 



Year 



Figure 1. Statewide estimated deer population and total deer harvest from 1938 to 2011 (left). Number of antlered 
bucks and does in the statewide deer harvest from 1978 to 2011 (right). 

2 Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



The most significant event of the 2011 deer hunting season was the first finding of CWD in two free-ranging white-tailed 
deer in Macon County. The two adult bucks along with 1075 other adult deer were tested as part of MDC's response to 
the finding of CWD in a captive facility in October of 2011. Following the finding of CWD in the free-ranging deer 
population the Department has identified 3 major goals for managing the disease: 

1. Determine the prevalence and monitor the distribution of CWD in the affected area; 

2. Provide accurate and relevant information on CWD to the public, agency staff, and other stakeholders; and 

3. Initiate appropriate management actions to control or prevent the further spread of CWD 

In early March the department completed, with cooperation from numerous landowners, the collection of 657 deer in 
close proximity to the previously identified CWD-positive free-ranging deer and CWD infected captive cervid facility in an 
effort to better understand the distribution and prevalence of CWD in the free-ranging deer population in north-central 
Missouri. Testing identified three additional CWD-positive free-ranging deer within 1 mile of the previously identified 
CWD-positive deer. These findings indicate that at the present time the disease is limited in distribution and has been 
introduced recently. 

Antler Point Restriction and Harvest Rates 

An antler point restriction (APR) of 4-points on at least one side was first implemented in 2004 for 29 counties in north 
and central Missouri (Old Central, Old North; Figure 5). In 2008, the 4-point antler restriction was expanded to all or part 
of 66 counties across north and west central Missouri. APR has been successful in reducing yearling buck harvest and 
increasing recruitment of bucks into older age classes. On average in APR counties, in 2010, 1.5 year old bucks make up 
17% of the antlered buck harvest. Two and one-half, 3.5 and >4.5 make up 50, 25, and 8% of the antlered buck harvest, 
respectively (Figure 5). 




Old Central 
CHd NorHi 
New Northeast 
New Northwest 

N^wWtestCerHral 




Figure 2. Portion of total antlered buck harvest made of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and >4.5 years old for different regions of 
Missouri under the 4-point antler restriction and those counties not under antler point restrictions in 2010, color 
coded to indicate implementation in 2004 ("old" counties) and 2008 ("new" counties). 

Harvest of 2.5 year old bucks has increased more than any other age class as a result of the APR. Harvest of bucks > 3.5 
years of age is lower in the APR counties added in 2008 because there has only been one cohort of protected yearling 
bucks recruited into the 3.5 year-old age class since implementation of the APR in the new counties. In the next 2 to 3 
years it is expected that the harvest of > 3.5 year-old bucks will increase as additional bucks are recruited into older age 
classes. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 




Percent Change in Harvest 

*-10% 
-9% - 0% 
+1%-+10% 



| +11% -+20% 
|>+20% 



Percent Change in Total Harvest from 10 Yr Avg 

| < -20% 

-19%- -10% 
-9% - 0% 
U +1%-+10% 

■ +11% -+20% 

■ > +20% 



Figure 3. Percent change in total county deer harvest from 2010 to 2011 and change in 2011 harvest from the 10-year 
average. 




Percent Change in 2011 Doe Harvest from 1 Yr Avg 

| | < -20% 

| |-19% --10% 

_] -9% - 0% 

| +1%-+10% 

| +11% -+20% 

■ > +20% 



Percent Change in 2011 Antlered Buck Harvest from 10 Yr Avg 

< -20% 
| -19% --10% 
| | -9% - 0% 

^H +i%-+to% 

| +11% -+20% 
■ > +20% 



Figure 4. Percent change in 2011 doe and antlered buck harvest from the 10-year average. 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 
Doe and Antlered Buck Harvest Rates 




Figure 5. Ten-year average doe harvest per square mile and doe harvest rate in 2011. 




10 Yr Avg Harvest per Sq Mile 
Antlered Bucks 
I I<10 

1.1 -1,5 
^fl 1.6 - 2.0 
■ >2.0 




2011 Antlered Buck Harvest per Sq Mile 

<1.0 
~l 1.1 -1.5 
| 1.6 - 2.0 
■ >2.0 



Figure 6. Ten-year average antlered buck harvest per square mile and doe harvest rate in 2011. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



Bowhunter Observation Index 



Glaciated Plains 



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Mississippi Lowlands 
Osage Plains 
Ozark Border 

Ozarks 






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Ozark Border 



Osage Plains 




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Mississippi Lowlands 



Ozarks 



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1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 



Figure 7. Regional and statewide trend in archery observation index (number of deer seen per 1,000 hours) from 1983 
through 2011. 



6 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



Chronic Wasting Disease 

Chronic wasting disease is in a family of infectious neurological diseases known as transmissible spongiform 
encephalopathies (TSEs). The infectious agent of CWD is an abnormal protein known as a prion. CWD prions 
accumulate in the brain, spinal cord, eyes, spleen, and lymph nodes of infected cervids. The resulting damage causes 
abnormal behavior, loss of body function leading to emaciation and eventually death. CWD is a slowly progressing 
syndrome that may take in excess of a year for clinical signs to appear. During the prolonged period between infection 
and clinical signs of CWD infected cervids begin to excrete infectious prions into the environment via bodily processes 
(e.g. defecation, urination, saliva). The shedding of prions in 
carcasses, feces, urine, and saliva results in direct and indirect 
transmission between cervids. Although environmental 
contamination plays a role in maintenance of the disease, animal-to- 
animal contact is the primary mode of disease transmission. CWD 
may also be spread directly through the natural movements of 
infected free-ranging cervids, as well as the interstate movement of 
infected captive cervids. Indirect transmission may occur through 
movement of infected carcasses and offal from hunter-harvested 
cervids and also from contaminated soil and water sources. To 
determine if a cervid is CWD-positive, a laboratory examination of 
brain stem or lymph node tissue of the animal has to be completed for testing. 

Research has shown CWD to only infect deer, elk, moose, and other exotic cervids, and that it cannot be spread 
to domestic livestock, such as sheep or cattle. Also, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Missouri Department of 
Health and Senior Services has found no evidence that CWD can infect people. While there is no scientific evidence that 
CWD is transmissible to humans or animals other than deer and other cervids, health officials caution that consumption 
of the parts when the prions accumulate is not recommended. 




Photo Credit: Dr. Terry Kreeger, Wyoming Game and Fish Department 



CWD in Missouri Update 

Concerns over the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations prompted surveillance activities by the 
Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC). In 2001, MDC began targeted CWD testing of wild adult deer in poor body 
condition. Following the first confirmed outbreak of CWD in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Wisconsin, MDC 
conducted a statewide surveillance of hunter-harvested deer to assess the status of CWD in the free-ranging deer herd. 
From 2002-2004, nearly 22,000 samples were collected, testing for CWD in every county of the state. Targeted testing 
of sick deer occurred in 2005 and 2006. In 2007, MDC began a three-year program of CWD testing in which 1/3 of the 
state was sampled annually. Taxidermists were recruited to collect samples from adult males. Incidence of CWD is 
highest in adult males so this procedure targeted the most likely sex-age class to be infected. A total 4,125 deer were 
tested from 2007 to 2009. In an effort to increase sampling intensity and increase the likelihood of early detection, in 
2010 MDC began annual sampling 34 of the state. In 2010, 1995 samples were collected in the northern half of Missouri 
as part of the random CWD surveillance. An additional 920 samples were collected as part of targeted CWD surveillance 
in association with the finding of CWD in a captive white-tailed deer in southeast Linn County. Following the 
confirmation of a second CWD-positive captive white-tailed deer in northwest Macon County an additional 1,077 deer 
within the CWD Surveillance Zone were tested in the fall of 2011. Additionally, in 2011 approximately 3,000 samples 
were collected in south Missouri. In total, MDC has tested more than 34,000 deer for CWD since 2001. 
Figure Distribution of deer tested for CWD in north-central Missouri from 2010-2011 as a result of the discovery of CWD 
in 2 captive white-tailed deer in Linn and Macon Counties. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



1 Putnam Schuyler 



T 



Mercer 



Grundy 



NORTH CENTRAL MISSOURI 
CWD SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION (2010-2012) 



Sullivan 



Adair 



Livingston 



Scotland 




Knox 




Carroll 



^ n 



Sections With CWD-Positive Deer 
l^P CWD-Positive Captive Facilities 

ffl County 

Deer Sampled Per Section 

| 1 -2 
3-5 






6-11 

| 12-19 

I 20 - 29 



D™ D 



EL 



Audrain 




*CWD samples collected with no legal description 
recorded are not included in this map. 



Figure 8. Distribution of deer sampled and tested for chronic wasting disease from 2010-2012 and sections in which 
deer have tested positive for CWD. 

8 Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



In January of 2012, two free-ranging, adult male white-tailed deer, harvested by hunters during the 2011 
firearms season were confirmed CWD-positive in northwest Macon County (Figure 8). These are the first CWD-positives 
detected in the free-ranging deer population in Missouri. In response to these CWD-positives, MDC immediately 
initiated a sample collection effort in February of 2012. Samples were collected from 657 deer taken within 5 mile radius 
of the CWD-positive free-ranging deer. CWD prions were detected in 3 of the 656 deer sampled, two does and one 
adult buck. MDC will be developing a management strategy to reduce the effects on CWD on the free-ranging deer 
population in Missouri. Within the sampling area, as well as the rest of Missouri, efforts are being made to educate 
landowners, citizens, and hunters about CWD and its subsequent effects. 

General Information about the 2011-12 Deer Season 

Season Dates: 

Archery Season: September 15 through January 15, closed during the November portion of the firearms deer 
season 

Firearms Season: 

Urban Portion: October 7 - 10 

Youth Portion: November 5 - 6; January 7 - 8 

November Portion: November 12 - 22 

Antlerless Portion: November 23 - December 4 

Muzzleloader Portion: December 17 - 27 
Bag Limit: 

Archery Deer: Archery Deer Hunting permits allows for the taking of two deer of either sex, except that only one 
antlered deer may be taken before the November portion of the firearms season. Unlimited numbers of 
additional antlerless deer may be taken on Archery Antlerless Deer Hunting Permits in selected counties. 

Firearms Deer: Firearms Any-Deer and Antlerless Permits were sold over-the-counter in unlimited quantities. 
An Any-Deer Permit was valid for one deer of either sex in any county. A Firearms Antlerless Permit was valid 
for one antlerless deer of either sex in any county. An unlimited number of Firearms Antlerless Permits could be 
filled in 74 counties (only the urban portion of 3 of these counties), one could be filled in 29 counties (only the 
rural portion of 3 of these counties) and none could be filled in 14 counties. 

Harvest Reporting: Successful hunters are required to report their harvest by 10:00 p.m. of the day of harvest using 
Telecheck (telephone or internet). 



200000 



150000 



100000 



50000 



I Archery Hunters Archery Harvest 



Firearms Hunters Firearms Harvest 




/ J? / # / # / «? 




/ g g i i i i i 



Figure 9. Trends in the number of individuals holding an archery and firearms deer hunting permit and harvest. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



Archery Deer Season Summary 

In 2011, archers harvested 49,530 including 25,849 does, 5,863 button bucks and 17,818 antlered bucks, which 
was a 17% increase from 2010 (Table 1). The 2011 archery harvest is the highest archery harvest total in Missouri, 
surpassing the previous harvest record from 2009 of 49,010 deer harvested. Sale of archery permits increased by 4% to 
104,160; youth archery permits increased by 9% to 6,431 (Table 2). Individual nonresident archers totaled 9,408 which 
was a 3% increase from 2010. Total individuals possessing an archery deer permit in 2011 was 183,013, increasing by 3% 
from 2010's total of 177,061. This continues the apparent long term trend on increasing archery season participation, 
which is reflected in archery season deer harvest numbers. 

Firearms Deer Season Summary 

Resident firearms hunters purchased a total of 899,020 permits (i.e., all resident firearms permit types sold to 
youth and adults), which is up slightly (1%) from 2010 (Table 2). However, both the number of Firearms Any-Deer 
Permits (291,890) and the number of Firearms Antlerless Permits (219,676) (hunters age > 16 years) purchased declined 
by 1% for the second consecutive year (Table 2). The number of youth permits sold increased by 10%, compensating for 
the reduction in permits sold to hunters > 16 years of age. Landowners were issued 178,975 any-deer permits, up 2% 
from 2010 and nonresident firearms hunters purchased a total of 28,445 permits, up 2% from 2010 and similar to 2009 
levels (Table 2). A total of 490,957 individuals possessed a firearms deer hunting permit in 2011, which was a 1% 
increase from 2010 (Table 3). 

The early and late youth-only portions continue to be popular with 16,438 and 2,196 deer, respectively, 
harvested in 2011. The total youth portion harvest in 2011 increased by 27% from 2010. The total youth portion 
harvest consisted of 10,756 antlered bucks, 2,251 button bucks and 5,627 does (Table 1). Increasing harvest during the 
youth portions is most likely the result of increasing participation. The number of youth firearms any-deer and 
antlerless permits were both up 10% from 2010 totals. 

Harvest during the Urban Zones portion stayed relatively stable from 586 in 2010 to 570 in 2011, only a 3% 
decrease. However, when comparing the Urban Zone harvest from 2009 of 1,457, harvest was 61% lower in 2011. 

The muzzleloader portion harvest was 15,235, an 18% increase from 2010. However, when compared to the 
muzzleloader portion in 2009 of 15,915, harvest was 4% lower in 2011. 

The 2011 antlerless portion harvest totaled 14,420, a 5% decrease from 2010 and a 35% decrease from 2009. 

Managed Deer Hunts 

Overall, hunters harvested 1,800 deer during the managed deer hunts in 2011, which is a 32% decrease from 
2010. However, the 2011 managed deer hunt totals were fairly similar (2% decrease) to 2009's total of 1,842. The 2011 
managed deer hunts harvest consisted of 431 antlered bucks, 304 button bucks, and 1,065 does. 



10 Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 Deer Harvest Composition by Season & Portion 



Managed 
Hunts 

1% 



Firearms Deer Season 
Composition 




Early Youth 

6% 



Urban 

<1% 



Figure 10. Deer harvest totals for 2011-12 composed by season and firearms season composed by portion totals. 



Hunter density 

| 0.0-2.5 
^H 2.6 - 5.0 

| 5.1 -7.5 
H 7.6-10.0 

■ 10.1-13.6 






Trips per Kill 




| 0-4 




5-8 




19-12 




^H 13-16 




\ | 17-27 






St. 


Louis / 




Figure 11. Number of firearms deer hunters per square mile and number of trips per kill estimated using the 2010 
post season firearms deer hunter survey. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 
Table 1. Deer Season Harvest Summary 



2011-12 



Season/Portion 


Antlered Deer 


Button Bucks 


Does 


Total 


2010 


2011 


%Diff 


2010 


2011 


% Dill. 


2010 


2011 


% Diff. 


2010 


2011 


% Diff. 


Archery 


15,909 


17,818 


12 


4,996 


5,863 


17 


21,467 


25,849 


20 


42,372 


49,530 


17 


Urban 


7 


5 


-29 


114 


96 


-16 


465 


469 


1 


586 


570 


-3 


Early Youth 


7,929 


10,258 


29 


1,570 


1,881 


20 


3,870 


4,299 


11 


13,369 


16,438 


23 


November 


76,962 


81,468 


6 


26,134 


25,892 


-1 


83,648 


81,045 


-3 


186,744 


188,405 


1 


Muzzleloader 


2,655 


3,400 


28 


1,941 


2,209 


14 


8,349 


9,626 


15 


12,945 


15,235 


18 


Antlerless - Only 


148 


153 


3 


2,987 


2,857 


-4 


12,082 


11,410 


-6 


15,217 


14,420 


-5 


Managed Hunts 


727 


431 


-41 


442 


304 


-31 


1,496 


1065 


-29 


2,665 


1800 


-32 


Late Youth 


270 


498 


45 


240 


370 


54 


791 


1,328 


68 


1,301 


2,196 


69 


Total Firearms 


87,971 


95,782 


9 


32,986 


33,305 


1 


109,205 


108,177 


-1 


230,162 


237,264 


3 


Total 


104,607 


114,031 


9 


38,424 


39,472 


3 


132,168 


135,091 


2 


275,199 


288,594 


5 



Table 2. Summary of Permit Sales and Harvest by Permit Type 



Permit Type 


Number of Permits 


Number of Deer Harvested 


2010 


2011 


% Diff. 


2010 


2011 


% Diff. 


Permittee Archery 


100,482 


104,160 


4 


19,315 


21,241 


10 


Landowner Archery 


79,964 


82,347 


3 


5,380 


6,311 


17 


Youth Archery 


5,880 


6,431 


9 


618 


838 


36 


Permitee Archery Antlerless 


43,029 


49,132 


14 


12,231 


14,933 


22 


Landowner Archery Antlerless 


123,759 


133,844 


8 


4,318 


5,657 


31 


Youth Archery Antlerless 


1,501 


1,817 


21 


228 


324 


42 


Permittee Firearms Any-Deer 


294,451 


291 ,890 


-1 


69,076 


71 ,572 


4 


Landowner Firearms Any-Deer 


175,050 


178,975 


2 


34,480 


37,676 


9 


Youth Firearms Any-Deer 


50,062 


55,046 


10 


15,848 


18,268 


15 


Permittee Firearms Antlerless 


221 ,737 


219,676 


-1 


75,213 


73,243 


-3 


Landowner Firearms Antlerless 


156,508 


157,624 


1 


28,530 


29,002 


2 


Youth Firearms Antlerless 


21,787 


23,922 


10 


6,592 


7,268 


10 
















Resident Firearms 


891 ,807 


899,020 


1 


218,659 


225,404 


3 


Nonresident Firearms 


27,788 


28,445 


2 


1 1 ,080 


1 1 ,569 


4 


Resident Archery 


345,127 


360,109 


4 


39,033 


45,887 


18 


Nonresident Archery 


9,408 


9,844 


5 


3,057 


3,391 


11 






Permittee Archery & Firearms 


743,312 


752,074 


1 


199,121 


207,632 


4 


Landowner Archery & Firearms 


535,281 


552,790 


3 


72,708 


78,619 


8 



12 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



Table 3. Deer Permit and Harvest Facts 





Archery 


Firearms 


Total 1 


Resident Permittees 1 


104,568 


334,752 


439,320 


Non Resident permittees 1 


7,945 


18,380 


26,325 


Landowners 1 


82,347 


178,975 


261,322 


Total 2 


183,013 


490,957 


511,475 


Age Distribution of hunters 








<10 


1,393 


20,665 


- 


11-15 


10,070 


48,859 


- 


16-40 


81,064 


182,775 


- 


>41 


90,486 


239,657 


- 


Antlerless permit sales 








1 


26,449 


148,401 


174,850 


2 


7,329 


28,488 


35,817 


3 


1,545 


6,615 


8,160 


>4 


1,098 


3,988 


5,086 


Number of deer taken 











146,624 


307,872 


309,740 


1 


27,489 


142,596 


145,507 


2 


6,360 


31,585 


39,280 


3 


1,613 


6,364 


10,855 


>4 


927 


2,540 


6,093 


Number of antlered deer taken 











165,788 


395,768 


403,838 


1 


16,674 


94,818 


102,181 


2 


547 


369 


5,219 


3 


4 


2 


237 


Percentage taking; 








> 1 deer 


19.88 


37.29 


39.44 


ldeer 


15.02 


29.04 


28.45 


2 deer 


3.48 


6.43 


7.68 


> 3 deer 


1.39 


1.81 


3.31 


Percentage taking: 








1 antlered buck 


9.11 


19.31 


19.98 


2 antlered bucks 


0.30 


0.08 


1.02 


> 3 antlered bucks 


0.00 


0.00 


0.05 










Percentage of deer taken by nonresidents 


6.8 


4.9 


5.2 


Percentage of deer taken by landowners 


24.1 


28.1 


27.2 



1 Number of any-deer permits issued 

2 Number of individuals, including nonresidents, possessing a permit, not number of permits issued 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



Table 4. Archery and Firearms Harvest Totals for the 2011-12 Missouri Deer Season 


• 










County 


Archery 


Firearms 


Totals 




Button 


Antlered 






Button 


Antlered 






Button 


Antlered 




Doe 


Buck 


Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Buck 


Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Buck 


Buck 


Total 


Adair 


329 


80 


187 


596 


1643 


523 


1068 


3234 


1972 


603 


1255 


3830 


Andrew 


115 


20 


94 


229 


608 


210 


631 


1449 


723 


230 


725 


1678 


Atchison 


88 


22 


104 


214 


416 


74 


506 


996 


504 


96 


610 


1210 


Audrain 


215 


61 


100 


376 


1088 


393 


807 


2288 


1303 


454 


907 


2664 


Barry 


204 


57 


198 


459 


650 


193 


902 


1745 


854 


250 


1100 


2204 


Barton 


242 


33 


137 


412 


696 


202 


702 


1600 


938 


235 


839 


2012 


Bates 


162 


28 


86 


276 


985 


272 


700 


1957 


1147 


300 


786 


2233 


Benton 


334 


86 


225 


645 


1909 


627 


1376 


3912 


2243 


713 


1601 


4557 


Bollinger 


334 


79 


210 


623 


1066 


325 


1243 


2634 


1400 


404 


1453 


3257 


Boone 


404 


93 


217 


714 


1327 


415 


1043 


2785 


1731 


508 


1260 


3499 


Buchanan 


71 


21 


55 


147 


443 


117 


389 


949 


514 


138 


444 


1096 


Butler 


161 


36 


175 


372 


538 


152 


542 


1232 


699 


188 


717 


1604 


Caldwell 


112 


15 


80 


207 


727 


193 


745 


1665 


839 


208 


825 


1872 


Callaway 


447 


90 


223 


760 


2017 


664 


1532 


4213 


2464 


754 


1755 


4973 


Camden 


381 


89 


231 


701 


1444 


450 


885 


2779 


1825 


539 


1116 


3480 


Cape Girardeau 


268 


65 


143 


476 


652 


181 


908 


1741 


920 


246 


1051 


2217 


Carroll 


152 


19 


102 


273 


969 


276 


979 


2224 


1121 


295 


1081 


2497 


Carter 


131 


39 


176 


346 


453 


157 


608 


1218 


584 


196 


784 


1564 


Cass 


181 


55 


131 


367 


835 


253 


836 


1924 


1016 


308 


967 


2291 


Cedar 


156 


40 


120 


316 


1071 


319 


763 


2153 


1227 


359 


883 


2469 


Chariton 


149 


28 


105 


282 


968 


256 


826 


2050 


1117 


284 


931 


2332 


Christian 


213 


44 


163 


420 


533 


164 


637 


1334 


746 


208 


800 


1754 


Clark 


232 


45 


182 


459 


1159 


358 


897 


2414 


1391 


403 


1079 


2873 


Clay 


367 


76 


212 


655 


410 


97 


469 


976 


777 


173 


681 


1631 


Clinton 


76 


13 


64 


153 


495 


152 


441 


1088 


571 


165 


505 


1241 


Cole 


130 


37 


87 


254 


687 


232 


500 


1419 


817 


269 


587 


1673 


Cooper 


181 


52 


112 


345 


1114 


329 


851 


2294 


1295 


381 


963 


2639 


Crawford 


251 


61 


239 


551 


1028 


290 


1206 


2524 


1279 


351 


1445 


3075 


Dade 


101 


18 


86 


205 


386 


162 


648 


1196 


487 


180 


734 


1401 


Dallas 


222 


42 


178 


442 


1031 


324 


864 


2219 


1253 


366 


1042 


2661 


Daviess 


240 


28 


141 


409 


1120 


333 


1005 


2458 


1360 


361 


1146 


2867 


Dekalb 


81 


13 


69 


163 


600 


177 


605 


1382 


681 


190 


674 


1545 



14 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



County 


Archery 


Firearms 


Totals 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Dent 


182 


69 


132 


383 


1096 


324 


1024 


2444 


1278 


393 


1156 


2827 


Douglas 


208 


44 


157 


409 


962 


284 


1097 


2343 


1170 


328 


1254 


2752 


Dunklin 


62 


6 


45 


113 


103 


29 


151 


283 


165 


35 


196 


396 


Franklin 


486 


125 


274 


885 


1716 


547 


1460 


3723 


2202 


672 


1734 


4608 


Gasconade 


282 


66 


167 


515 


1463 


486 


1077 


3026 


1745 


552 


1244 


3541 


Gentry 


143 


20 


135 


298 


878 


220 


814 


1912 


1021 


240 


949 


2210 


Greene 


291 


70 


254 


615 


806 


200 


696 


1702 


1097 


270 


950 


2317 


Grundy 


139 


23 


95 


257 


718 


196 


628 


1542 


857 


219 


723 


1799 


Harrison 


256 


45 


244 


545 


1323 


383 


1276 


2982 


1579 


428 


1520 


3527 


Henry 


281 


80 


129 


490 


1566 


493 


1021 


3080 


1847 


573 


1150 


3570 


Hickory 


187 


59 


122 


368 


1220 


378 


792 


2390 


1407 


437 


914 


2758 


Holt 


131 


15 


94 


240 


541 


122 


576 


1239 


672 


137 


670 


1479 


Howard 


174 


37 


130 


341 


983 


238 


861 


2082 


1157 


275 


991 


2423 


Howell 


330 


77 


288 


695 


1868 


607 


1600 


4075 


2198 


684 


1888 


4770 


Iron 


47 


12 


59 


118 


302 


113 


411 


826 


349 


125 


470 


944 


Jackson 


534 


116 


361 


1011 


462 


116 


486 


1064 


996 


232 


847 


2075 


Jasper 


277 


43 


248 


568 


630 


195 


1013 


1838 


907 


238 


1261 


2406 


Jefferson 


565 


136 


276 


977 


1257 


400 


1046 


2703 


1822 


536 


1322 


3680 


Johnson 


246 


39 


124 


409 


1078 


395 


916 


2389 


1324 


434 


1040 


2798 


Knox 


294 


67 


191 


552 


1415 


484 


1019 


2918 


1709 


551 


1210 


3470 


Laclede 


231 


79 


227 


537 


1252 


442 


1097 


2791 


1483 


521 


1324 


3328 


Lafayette 


92 


24 


49 


165 


574 


181 


502 


1257 


666 


205 


551 


1422 


Lawrence 


176 


28 


172 


376 


448 


148 


694 


1290 


624 


176 


866 


1666 


Lewis 


169 


41 


124 


334 


1071 


356 


863 


2290 


1240 


397 


987 


2624 


Lincoln 


355 


104 


205 


664 


1460 


479 


1206 


3145 


1815 


583 


1411 


3809 


Linn 


345 


62 


188 


595 


1360 


379 


1050 


2789 


1705 


441 


1238 


3384 


Livingston 


156 


26 


113 


295 


851 


277 


791 


1919 


1007 


303 


904 


2214 


Macon 


450 


108 


249 


807 


2056 


626 


1589 


4271 


2506 


734 


1838 


5078 


Madison 


137 


41 


91 


269 


371 


152 


575 


1098 


508 


193 


666 


1367 


Maries 


173 


53 


112 


338 


880 


303 


698 


1881 


1053 


356 


810 


2219 


Marion 


171 


45 


101 


317 


923 


312 


730 


1965 


1094 


357 


831 


2282 


McDonald 


169 


33 


194 


396 


500 


131 


738 


1369 


669 


164 


932 


1765 


Mercer 


238 


51 


214 


503 


970 


259 


882 


2111 


1208 


310 


1096 


2614 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



County 


Archery 


Firearms 


Totals 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Miller 


248 


55 


118 


421 


1214 


405 


753 


2372 


1462 


460 


871 


2793 


Mississippi 


21 


1 


19 


41 


38 


15 


168 


221 


59 


16 


187 


262 


Moniteau 


103 


26 


59 


188 


647 


201 


511 


1359 


750 


227 


570 


1547 


Monroe 


313 


69 


154 


536 


1429 


528 


1048 


3005 


1742 


597 


1202 


3541 


Montgomery 


236 


48 


128 


412 


1266 


448 


1008 


2722 


1502 


496 


1136 


3134 


Morgan 


340 


70 


176 


586 


1662 


497 


1147 


3306 


2002 


567 


1323 


3892 


New Madrid 


39 


3 


27 


69 


55 


17 


162 


234 


94 


20 


189 


303 


Newton 


240 


40 


247 


527 


625 


176 


844 


1645 


865 


216 


1091 


2172 


Nodaway 


202 


29 


223 


454 


1263 


297 


1264 


2824 


1465 


326 


1487 


3278 


Oregon 


273 


64 


245 


582 


1675 


476 


1173 


3324 


1948 


540 


1418 


3906 


Osage 


377 


89 


224 


690 


1822 


519 


1391 


3732 


2199 


608 


1615 


4422 


Ozark 


236 


58 


165 


459 


883 


255 


1121 


2259 


1119 


313 


1286 


2718 


Pemiscot 


13 


4 


11 


28 


26 


4 


58 


88 


39 


8 


69 


116 


Perry 


201 


27 


112 


340 


978 


286 


912 


2176 


1179 


313 


1024 


2516 


Pettis 


233 


46 


118 


397 


1294 


394 


969 


2657 


1527 


440 


1087 


3054 


Phelps 


219 


53 


147 


419 


835 


272 


721 


1828 


1054 


325 


868 


2247 


Pike 


405 


106 


216 


727 


1841 


660 


1408 


3909 


2246 


766 


1624 


4636 


Platte 


361 


67 


177 


605 


441 


116 


451 


1008 


802 


183 


628 


1613 


Polk 


173 


41 


144 


358 


639 


196 


955 


1790 


812 


237 


1099 


2148 


Pulaski 


197 


51 


136 


384 


591 


212 


556 


1359 


788 


263 


692 


1743 


Putnam 


373 


61 


245 


679 


1314 


349 


1058 


2721 


1687 


410 


1303 


3400 


Ralls 


213 


42 


105 


360 


1107 


336 


839 


2282 


1320 


378 


944 


2642 


Randolph 


249 


48 


123 


420 


1273 


400 


886 


2559 


1522 


448 


1009 


2979 


Ray 


117 


31 


89 


237 


782 


208 


753 


1743 


899 


239 


842 


1980 


Reynolds 


96 


29 


116 


241 


503 


166 


592 


1261 


599 


195 


708 


1502 


Ripley 


273 


92 


185 


550 


1095 


325 


898 


2318 


1368 


417 


1083 


2868 


Saint Charles 


291 


83 


223 


597 


777 


178 


758 


1713 


1068 


261 


981 


2310 


Saint Clair 


280 


78 


153 


511 


1647 


534 


1026 


3207 


1927 


612 


1179 


3718 


Saint Francois 


205 


68 


130 


403 


574 


187 


649 


1410 


779 


255 


779 


1813 


Saint Louis 


549 


108 


319 


976 


361 


90 


322 


773 


910 


198 


641 


1749 


Sainte Genevieve 


234 


41 


71 


346 


1070 


314 


689 


2073 


1304 


355 


760 


2419 


Saline 


143 


24 


71 


238 


782 


225 


701 


1708 


925 


249 


772 


1946 


Schuyler 


145 


27 


102 


274 


878 


289 


603 


1770 


1023 


316 


705 


2044 



16 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



County 


Archery 


Firearms 


Totals 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Doe 


Button 
Buck 


Antlered 
Buck 


Total 


Scotland 


332 


63 


227 


622 


1480 


505 


1010 


2995 


1812 


568 


1237 


3617 


Scott 


55 


13 


43 


111 


202 


59 


241 


502 


257 


72 


284 


613 


Shannon 


172 


46 


167 


385 


892 


218 


839 


1949 


1064 


264 


1006 


2334 


Shelby 


297 


80 


175 


552 


1351 


429 


943 


2723 


1648 


509 


1118 


3275 


Stoddard 


260 


88 


204 


552 


516 


193 


558 


1267 


776 


281 


762 


1819 


Stone 


118 


24 


123 


265 


439 


152 


588 


1179 


557 


176 


711 


1444 


Sullivan 


297 


57 


220 


574 


1417 


419 


1058 


2894 


1714 


476 


1278 


3468 


Taney 


206 


44 


206 


456 


666 


223 


874 


1763 


872 


267 


1080 


2219 


Texas 


276 


68 


265 


609 


1570 


463 


1722 


3755 


1846 


531 


1987 


4364 


Vernon 


307 


49 


156 


512 


1428 


459 


946 


2833 


1735 


508 


1102 


3345 


Warren 


209 


59 


139 


407 


924 


313 


771 


2008 


1133 


372 


910 


2415 


Washington 


147 


54 


112 


313 


679 


253 


828 


1760 


826 


307 


940 


2073 


Wayne 


390 


107 


277 


774 


1074 


366 


1200 


2640 


1464 


473 


1477 


3414 


Webster 


187 


45 


202 


434 


739 


216 


911 


1866 


926 


261 


1113 


2300 


Worth 


90 


14 


137 


241 


467 


124 


506 


1097 


557 


138 


643 


1338 


Wright 


201 


44 


191 


436 


775 


213 


900 


1888 


976 


257 


1091 


2324 






Northwest 


2901 


495 


2346 


5742 


15499 


4253 


14667 


34419 


18400 


4748 


17013 


40161 


Northeast 


4269 


939 


2601 


7809 


20357 


6574 


15019 


41950 


24626 


7513 


17620 


49759 


Kansas City 


3378 


744 


1921 


6043 


12629 


3937 


9698 


26264 


16007 


4681 


11619 


32307 


Central 


3834 


890 


2155 


6879 


18396 


5805 


13765 


37966 


22230 


6695 


15920 


44845 


St. Louis 


2853 


730 


1787 


5370 


8208 


2550 


7597 


18349 


11061 


3280 


9384 


23719 


Southwest 


3393 


740 


3021 


7154 


12331 


3821 


13718 


29870 


15724 


4561 


16739 


37024 


Ozark 


2698 


705 


2254 


5657 


12695 


3806 


12259 


28760 


15393 


4511 


14513 


34417 


Southeast 


2523 


620 


1733 


4876 


8068 


2559 


9059 


19686 


10591 


3179 


10792 


24562 


GRAND TOTAL 


25849 


5863 


17818 


49530 


108177 


33305 


95782 


237264 


134026 


39168 


113600 


286794 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



60000 



50000 



+- 40000 



> 
05 



0) 
0) 

Q 



30000 



20000 



10000 



9/15 



2011-12 Daily Harvest Total 



60000 



November Firearms Portion 



40000 



20000 



»»♦*»' 



- 

11/12 11/17 11/22 

Harvest Dates 



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11/23 



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Harvest Dates 



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11/15 
Harvest Dates 



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1/15 



18 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 
Regional Deer Harvest Trends 




40000 
30000 
20000 



I Doe C^ Button Buck ^m Antlered Buck 

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Figure 12. Doe, button buck, and antlered deer harvest totals for Northeast, Northwest, West Central, and Central 
regions in Missouri during 2001 to 2011. 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 




I Doe CZI Button Buck ^■Antlered Buck 

St. Louis/ Kansas City 




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Figure 12 Continued. Doe, button buck, and antlered deer harvest totals for St. Louis / Kansas City, Eastern Ozark, 
Southwest Ozark, and Southeast regions in Missouri during 2001 to 2011. 



20 



Missouri Department of Conservation 



2011-12 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 
Deer Management Information & Assistance 

Deer Information Tailored to Hunters & Landowners 

The University of Missouri (MU) Extension and Missouri Department of Conservation are collaborating on a publication 
series devoted solely to deer management. This information is intended for landowners, hunters, and wildlife 
enthusiasts that want to learn more about deer and managing deer in Missouri. 



The publication series includes a wide variety of science-based 
information about deer management that will help landowners and 
hunters better manage deer. Several publications explain how to 
obtain population information, such as sex ratio, density, fawn 
recruitment, and age structure. Topics also include information on 
deer biology, including antler growth, ecology, and aging deer "on the 
hoof and by jawbones 




These publications are free to the public and available on MU Extension's website 
( http://extension.missouri.edu/main/DisplavCategory.aspx7C =82 ). As of March 2012, there are 10 publications 
available, with several more being constantly added to provide new and diverse deer management information. 



Deer Cooperative Assistance 

Missouri is fortunate to have regulations set by county, instead of large regions like many other states, as this allows 
regulations to be customized to specific deer population demographics and land use within an area. However, deer 
populations can still vary within a county, meaning that county regulations might not be best suited for all areas within a 
county. Therefore, a more localized approach to deer management 
might be necessary for landowners and hunters to achieve their deer 
management goals. A great way to produce significant results is by 
establishing a cooperative, which is simply an organized group of 
neighbors that work collectively to achieve similar management goals 

through habitat improvement, harvest 

management and education. Many 

cooperatives are focused on deer 

management, but not necessarily, as goals can ready for a prescribed burn. 

be based on any wildlife (turkey, quail, non-game, etc.) or habitat goal. 





Big Buffalo Creek Landowner Coop getting 



J 



WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 
ASSOCIATION 



3 



crwma.com 



Private Property A 
No Trespassing 



Cuivre River Coop Sign. 



Cooperatives are managed and operated solely by their members; however, MDC is often 
willing to assist. For example, in some situations MDC may be able to provide development 
assistance, presentations and workshops for members on topics important to the 
cooperative's goals, and any other education and technical guidance, so the cooperative 
can best achieve their management goals. 

Private Land Conservationists (PLC) provide assistance to landowners interested in 
developing cooperatives in their area. Find your local PLC by searching "Who's My Local 
Contact?" at http://mdc.mo.gov 



Missouri Deer Population Status Report & Deer Season Summary 



2011-12 



Deer Program Research Projects 

Deer density and habitat conditions affect reproductive parameters like fetal rates, conception rates, and age at 
first reproduction. The impact of nutrition on reproductive parameters is well known. Does maintained on a high- 
quality diet produced more fawns and bred at younger ages than does nutritionally and socially stressed. We have 
assumed that in heavily agricultural areas with an abundance of food and where deer populations are maintained at 
levels below biological carrying capacity that reproductive rates would not vary greatly. However, in previous studies 
conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation, fawn conception rates in the Glaciated Plains (Figure 7.), the 
most fertile region of the state, declined from 70% in the 1950's to 34% in the 1990's. Antler characteristics (number of 
points, antler beam circumference) of yearling bucks also deteriorated over this same time period. Due to lower body 
fat and higher energy requirements fawns, are more sensitive to changes in social stress and resource availability than 
yearling and adult does. Declining fawn reproduction and yearling buck antler development occurred during a period of 
rapid growth in the size of the Missouri deer population. The decline in fawn reproductive rates suggests a density 
dependent relationship. 

Deer populations across the state have steadily increased since the last evaluation of female reproduction in the 
early 1990's. Population simulations suggest that there were 1 million deer in Missouri in 1993 and 1.4 million today. If 
density-dependent processes are impacting deer populations in Missouri we would expect to see a change in 
reproductive rates since the last survey in 1993. 

In an effort to evaluate female white-tailed deer reproductive characteristic we conducted field survey of 
reproductive status of female deer collected during the winter 2012 CWD sample collection effort in Linn and Macon 
counties. We detected pregnancy in 95% of adult does (> 2 years old), 47% of yearling does (>1 year old and < 2 years 
old), and 0% in does fawns (> 1 year old). Adult does averaged 1.8 fetuses per doe while yearling does averaged 1.6 
fetuses per doe. Despite the decline in fawn pregnancy rate, body condition and reproduction in adult does doesn't 
appear to be affected. In addition to determining reproductive rates we estimated date of conception (Figure 13). 
Median date of conception was estimated to be November 11 th . 



100 



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ru 

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1_ 

0) 

120 



Distribution of Estimated Conception Dates in 2011 



Yearling 




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vO°>" J? \<° v\> /f> <V \* 



Figure 13. Distribution of estimated conceptions dates from female white-tailed deer collected in February and March 
of 2012 in Linn and Macon counties. 



22 



Missouri Department of Conservation 









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Missouri Department of Conservation